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A
A symbol for mass number.

A chain
A synonym for isobar.

actinium emanation
(obsolete term)

The nuclide 219Rn.

Symbol: AcEm.

actinium decay series
The nuclides fed in the radioactive decay of 235U including all daughters through stable 207Pb. Also known as the (4n+3) series because each member of the series has a mass equivalent to (4n+3), where n is an integer.

Synonym: actinium series.
Related to thorium decay series.
Related to uranium decay series.


actinium series
A synonym for actinium decay series.

atomic number
The number of protons in a nucleus. Each atomic number represents a chemical element that has an assigned name and symbol. A nuclide with 20 protons is an isotope of calcium and is represented by the symbol Ca.

Symbol: Z.
Synonym: Moseley number.
Synonym: proton number.
Related to mass number.
Related to neutron number.


carbon-14
A naturally-occurring radioactive isotope of carbon that has a half-life of 5730 years. High-energy neutrons, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray interaction, react with 14N through the (n,p) reaction to form 14C. This radioactive carbon eventually mixes with carbon in the lower atmosphere, thereby making 14C naturally available. Ancient sources of carbon, such as coal or petroleum deposits, are too old to contain 14C: the radioactive carbon has decayed away.

Symbol: 14C.

chart of nuclides
A map showing the known nuclides. The number of protons in a nucleus is shown on the vertical axis and the number of neutrons is shown on the horizontal axis. Nuclide charts are often colored to visualize a particular property and the nuclide boxes often contain a brief summary of nuclear properties.

Synonym: isotope chart.
Synonym: nuclide chart.
Synonym: Segré chart.
Related to periodic table.


D
A symbol for deuterium.

daughter
A synonym for daughter nuclide.

daughter element
A synonym for daughter nuclide.

daughter nuclide
The nuclide produced in radioactive decay.

Synonym: daughter.
Synonym: daughter element.
Synonym: decay product.
Synonym: descendent.
Related to decay chain.
Related to parent nuclide.


daughter product
A synonym for daughter nuclide.

decay chain
A series of nuclides linked in a chain by radioactive decay. Each nuclide in the chain decays to the next until a stable nuclide is reached.

Synonym: decay family.
Synonym: decay series.
Synonym: disintegration chain.
Synonym: disintegration family.
Synonym: disintegration series.
Synonym: family.
Synonym: radioactive decay chain.
Synonym: radioactive family.
Synonym: radioactive series.
Related to daughter nuclide.
Related to parentage.
Related to parent nuclide.


decay daughter
A synonym for daughter nuclide.

decay family
A synonym for decay chain.

decay product
A synonym for daughter nuclide.

decay scheme
A level scheme populated in radioactive decay.

Related to level scheme.

decay series
A synonym for decay chain.

deuterium
An isotope of hydrogen which has a single proton and a single neutron. Deuterium is a stable, naturally occurring nuclide found with an isotopic abundance of 1 part in every 7,000 parts of 1H. A deuterium nucleus is often referred to as a deuteron. The name was proposed by Bohr and Heisenberg.

Symbol: 2H.
Symbol: D.
Synonym: diplogen.
Synonym: heavy hydrogen.
Related to deuteron.
Related to hydrogen.
Related to tritium.


disintegration chain
A synonym for decay chain.

disintegration family
A synonym for decay chain.

disintegration series
A synonym for decay chain.

Em
A symbol for emanation.

emanation
(obsolete term)

Symbol: Em.
A synonym for radon.


emanon
(obsolete term)

A synonym for radon.

energy level diagram
A synonym for level scheme.

exotic atom
An atom whose nucleus is made of a positively-charged fundamental particle or in which an electron has been replaced by a negatively-charged fundamental particle.

Related to atom.
Related to inverted atom.
Related to positronium.
Related to mu-mesic atom.


fertile nuclide
A nuclide that can be converted into a fissile nuclide through neutron capture.

Related to fertile material.
Related to fissile material.


fission product
A residual nucleus formed in fission, including fission fragments and their decay daughters.

Acronym: FP.
Related to fission.
Related to photofission.
Related to spontaneous fission.
Related to ternary fission.


hyplogen
(obsolete term) A name Rutherford proposed in 1932 for the nuclide 1H, hydrogen.

A synonym for hydrogen.

inverted atom
An atom composed entirely of antimatter. It has a nucleus formed from antiprotons and antineutrons. Positrons are bound to this nucleus in atomic orbitals.

Related to exotic atom.

isobar
(1) Two or more nuclides with the same number of total nucleons. The nuclides 40K, 40Ca, and 40Sc have 40 nucleons and are thus isobaric. Use the adjective form, isobaric, when talking about two nuclides with the same number of nucleons.

(2) The set of known or postulated nuclides that have the same number of nucleons. A mass chain. Use the plural form, isobars, to talk about multiple mass chains.

Synonym: A chain.
Synonym: mass chain.
Related to isomer.
Related to isotone.
Related to isotope.
Related to nuclide.


isomer
(1) Two or more nuclides with the same numbers of neutrons and protons but with different energies.

(2) An excited state in a nucleus with an appreciable half-life.

Related to isobar.
Related to isotone.
Related to isotope.
Related to nuclide.


isotone
Two or more nuclides with the same number of neutrons. The nuclides 14C, 15N, and 16O have 8 neutrons and are thus isotones.

Related to isobar.
Related to isomer.
Related to isotope.
Related to nuclide.


isotope
Two or more nuclides with the same number of protons. Isotopes are the same chemical element. The nuclides 5Li, 6Li, 7Li, and 8Li, all have 3 protons and are thus isotopes. Isotope is often incorrectly used in place of the term nuclide.

Related to isobar.
Related to isomer.
Related to isotone.
Related to nuclide.


isotope chart
A synonym for chart of nuclides.

level scheme
A diagram showing the excited states of a system as horizontal lines and whose vertical position represents the energy of the state. Transitions between excited states are represented as vertical arrows connecting the appropriate excited states.

Synonym: energy level diagram.
Related to decay scheme.


mass chain
A synonym for isobar.

mass number
The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. The total number of nucleons. It is generally used with the chemical symbol to distinguish between nuclides. Tritium contains one proton and two neutrons and is represented by the symbol 3H, where the mass number is 3.

Symbol: A.
Synonym: atomic mass number.
Synonym: nucleon number.
Related to atomic number.
Related to neutron number.


mu-mesic atom
An atom in which an electron has been replaced by a μ- muon.

Synonym: muonic atom.
Related to exotic atom.


muonic atom
A synonym for mu-mesic atom.

neutron number
The number of neutrons in a nucleus. It is equivalent to the number of nucleons minus the atomic number or N = (A-Z).

Symbol: N.
Related to atomic number.
Related to mass number.


nucleon number
A synonym for mass number.

nuclide
An atom or a collection of atoms whose nuclei have a specified number of protons and neutrons. Isotope is often (incorrectly) used for the term nuclide. The term nuclide was originally proposed by T.P. Kohman in 1947.

Related to isobar.
Related to isomer.
Related to isotone.
Related to isotope.


nuclide chart
A synonym for chart of nuclides.

o-Ps
A symbol for ortho positronium.

ortho positronium
An atom-like system composed of a positron and an electron whose spins are parallel, in a triplet state. The mean life of ortho positronium is 10-7 s.

Symbol: o-Ps.
Related to para positronium.
Related to positron.
Related to positronium.
Related to triplet state.


para positronium
An atom-like system composed of a positron and an electron whose spins are antiparallel, in a singlet state. The mean life of para positronium is 10-10 s.

Symbol: p-Ps.
Related to ortho positronium.
Related to positronium.


parent
A synonym for parent nuclide.

parentage
The relationship of a nuclide to a second nuclide through a single radioactive decay. The initial nuclide is known as the parent and the product nuclide is known as the daughter.

Related to daughter nuclide.
Related to decay chain.
Related to parent nuclide.


parent nuclide
The first of two nuclides linked by radioactive decay. A parent decays to a daughter nuclide.

Synonym: parent.
Related to daughter nuclide.
Related to decay chain.


positronium
An atom-like system formed between an electron and a positron. One of the two particles acts as a nucleus with the other particle orbiting around it. The positronium is unstable and annihilates forming two photons each with an energy of 511 keV, the rest mass of the electron.

Related to ortho positronium.
Related to para positronium.


p-Ps
A symbol for para positronium.

product nuclide
The nucleus that is formed a nuclear reaction. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to ejectile.
Related to projectile.
Related to target nuclide.


protium
(obsolete term)

An early proposed name for the nuclide 1H, hydrogen.

A synonym for hydrogen.

radioactive decay chain
A synonym for decay chain.

radioactive family
A synonym for decay chain.

radioactive isotope
A nuclide that is radioactive.

radioactive nuclide
An nuclide capable of undergoing radioactive decay.

Synonym: stable nuclide.
Synonym: (colloquial) unstable isotope.


radioactive series
A synonym for decay chain.

radioisotope
A synonym for radionuclide.

radionuclide
A radioactive nuclide.

Synonym: radioisotope.

radium emanation
(obsolete term)

The nuclide 222Rn.
Symbol: RaEm.

RaEm
A symbol for radium emanation.

Segré chart
A synonym for chart of nuclides.

stable isotope
A synonym for stable nuclide.

stable nuclide
Strictly speaking, a nuclide that is not radioactive. The definition is often relaxed to include very long-lived nuclides that are naturally occurring.

Synonym: stable isotope.
Related to radioactive nuclide.


T
A symbol for tritium.

target nucleus
The nucleus in a nuclear reaction on which a projectile particle or radiation is incident.

target nuclide
The initial nucleus in a nuclear reaction on which a projectile is incident. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to ejectile.
Related to product nuclide.
Related to projectile.


ThEm
A symbol for thoron emanation.

thorium decay series
The nuclides fed in the radioactive decay of 232Th including all daughters through stable 208Pb. Also known as the (4n) series because each member of the series has a mass equivalent to (4n), where n is an integer.

Synonym: thorium series.
Related to actinium decay series.
Related to uranium decay series.


thorium series
A synonym for thorium decay series.

thoron emanation
(obsolete)

The nuclide 220Rn.

Symbol: ThEm.

tritium
An isotope of hydrogen with a single proton and two neutrons. Tritium is radioactive with a half-life of 12.33 years. It is found in nature as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. A tritium nucleus is called a triton.

Symbol: 3H.
Symbol: T.
Related to deuterium.
Related to hydrogen.
Related to triton.


uranium decay series
The nuclides fed in the radioactive decay of 238U including all daughters through stable 206Pb. Also known as the (4n+2) series because each member of the series has a mass equivalent to (4n+2), where n is an integer.

Synonym: uranium-radium series.
Synonym: uranium series.
Related to actinium decay series.
Related to thorium decay series.


uranium-radium series
A synonym for uranium decay series.

uranium series
A synonym for uranium decay series.

2H
A symbol for deuterium.

3H
A symbol for tritium.
 
 
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