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absorb
To combine a particle with an atom, a nucleus, or another particle.

absorption
The process of combining a particle with an atom, a nucleus, or another particle.

absorption cross section
A synonym for capture cross section.

activation
Of or pertaining to the process of inducing radioactivity by bombarding a nuclide with radiation.

activation product
A nuclide formed through the process of activation.

b
A symbol for barn.

barn
Unit of reaction probability defined as 10-28 m2 (10-24 cm2).

Symbol: b.
Related to cross section.
Related to outhouse.
Related to shed.


capture cross section
A measure of the probability that an incident particle or photon will be absorbed by a target nuclide.

Symbol: σc.
Synonym: absorption cross section.
Related to barn.
Related to cross section.
Related to fission cross section.
Related to scattering cross section.


chain reaction
A reaction whose products are capable of inducing further reactions. Neutron-induced fission is a common example. The fission reaction produces neutrons that can sustain the reaction, thus forming a chain of linked reactions. Gasoline combustion is an example from chemistry. A spark initiates the combustion, resulting in a release of energy that is sufficient to propagate the reaction.

Related to neutron chain reaction.
Related to neutron generation.


chemical reaction
Related to nuclear reaction.

cross section
A measure of the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur. It is the apparent or effective area presented by a target nucleus or particle to an oncoming radiation. The barn is the standard unit for the cross section.

Symbol: σ.
Related to barn.
Related to capture cross section.
Related to fission cross section.
Related to scattering cross section.


ejectile
A radiation, particle or ion produced as the result of a nuclear reaction. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to product nuclide.
Related to projectile.
Related to target nuclide.


fast fission
Fission induced by fast neutrons.

Related to fast neutron.

fission cross section
The probability a reaction will occur that will cause a nuclide to fission.

Symbol: σf.
Related to barn.
Related to capture cross section.
Related to cross section.
Related to scattering cross section.


impact parameter
The smallest distance between a projectile and a target nucleus for which there is no interaction.

Symbol: b.

induced radioactivity
Radioactivity that is produced by bombarding a substance with radiation. For example, irradiating the element fluorine (which contains only 19F) with thermal neutrons produces 20F, a radioactive nuclide with a half-life of about 11 s.

Related to neutron capture.

inelastic scattering
A type of scattering where a part of the projectile energy is transferred to the target nucleus.

irradiate
To expose to radiation.

irradiation
Of or pertaining to the process of exposing a substance or an object to radiation.

neutron absorption
A synonym for neutron capture.

neutron absorption cross section
A synonym for neutron absorption cross section.

neutron activation
The process of inducing radioactivity in a sample using the neutron capture reaction.

neutron capture
Absorption of a neutron by an atomic nucleus. A measure of the probability that a material will capture a neutron is given by the neutron capture cross section, which depends on the energy of a neutron and on the composition of the material.

Synonym: neutron absorption.
Related to induced radioactivity.
Related to neutron capture cross section.


neutron-capture cross section
The probability that a neutron passing near a nuclide will be captured or absorbed.

Symbol: σc.
Related to cross section.


neutron chain reaction
A chain reaction that is propagated by neutrons. Neutrons emitted by nuclei in a material are capable of inducing reactions which lead to the production of additional neutrons, thereby sustaining the reaction chain.

Related to chain reaction.
Related to fission.


nuclear energy
Energy released by radioactive decay, through a nuclear reaction, or in the course of nuclear fission.

A synonym for nuclear power.
Synonym: atomic energy.
Synonym: (obsolete) tomic energy.


nuclear fusion
The process of forming a heavier nucleus from two lighter ones.

Synonym: atomic fusion.
Synonym: fusion.
Related to fission.
Related to thermonuclear.


nuclear reaction
A reaction involving an atomic nucleus. It is usually initiated by bombarding a target nucleus with a radiation, called a projectile. The interaction of the radiation with the nucleus may cause the emission of other radiations, called ejectiles. In the reaction 14N + n → 14C + p, the target nucleus is 14N, the neutron is the projectile, and the proton is the ejectile. This reaction can also be written as 14N(n,p)14C.

Related to chemical reaction.


nuclear spallation
A synonym for spallation.

outhouse
An unusual unit of cross section defined as 10-6 barns, a microbarn. Note that an outhouse is smaller than a barn but larger than a shed.

Related to barn.
Related to shed.


photofission
Nuclear fission induced by high energy photons.

Related to fission.
Related to fission fragment.
Related to fission neutron.
Related to fission product.
Related to spontaneous fission.
Related to ternary fission.


pick-off annihilation
Annihilation of a positron that is bound to a positronium with an electron that is bound to a colliding molecule.

product nuclide
The nucleus that is formed a nuclear reaction. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to ejectile.
Related to projectile.
Related to target nuclide.


projectile
A radiation, particle or ion incident on a target nuclide. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to ejectile.
Related to nuclear reaction.
Related to product nuclide.
Related to target nuclide.


Q-value
The energy released in a nuclear reaction or in radioactive decay as calculated from the difference in total energy (including rest mass) of the products (product nuclei and ejectiles) and reactants (target nuclei and projectiles). When applied to radioactive decay, the target nucleus is the parent nuclide, the daughter nucleus is the product nuclide, and there is no projectile.

Symbol: Q.
Synonym: reaction energy.


σc
A symbol for capture cross section.

σf
A symbol for fission cross section.

σs
A symbol for scattering cross section.

scattering cross section
A measure of the probability that an interaction between a incident particle and a nuclide will occur and scatter the incident particle.

Symbol: σs.
Related to barn.
Related to capture cross section.
Related to cross section.
Related to fission cross section.


self-sustaining chain reaction
A synonym for chain reaction.

shed
A unit of cross section defined as 10-24 barn.

Related to barn.
Related to outhouse.


spallation
A process of particle emission where very-highly excited nuclei emit various numbers of nucleons. It was originally observed by Seaborg and Perlman in 1947 who found that nuclides with intermediate mass and atomic number emit up to 20-30 nucleons when bombarded by 400 MeV alpha particles or 200 MeV deuterons.

Synonym: nuclear spallation.

target nucleus
The nucleus in a nuclear reaction on which a projectile particle or radiation is incident.

target nuclide
The initial nucleus in a nuclear reaction on which a projectile is incident. It is used in the context of a nuclear reaction where the projectile interacts with a target nucleus, producing a product nucleus and an ejectile.

Related to ejectile.
Related to product nuclide.
Related to projectile.


thermal fission
Fission induced by thermal neutrons.
 
 
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