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A Collection of Dose Terms...
absorbed dose
The amount of energy of an ionizing radiation absorbed per unit mass of material. The standard unit for absorbed dose is the gray.

Symbol: D.
Synonym: imparted specific energy.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to gray.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.


ALARA
An acronym for as low as reasonably achievable.

ambient dose equivalent
A synonym for equivalent dose.

annual limit on intake
The derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. It is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 Sv) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 Sv) to any individual organ or tissue.

Acronym: ALI.
Related to derived air concentration.


as low as reasonably achievable
A goal for reducing radiation doses to levels far below the dose limits, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest.

Acronym: ALARA.
References: 10CFR20, 10CFR30, 10CFR70, 10CFR72.


bone seeker
An element or chemical that if ingested migrates to the bones. An example is 90Sr, which behaves chemically like calcium and is deposited in the bones.

CDE
An acronym for committed dose equivalent.

CEDE
An acronym for committed effective dose equivalent.
Reference: DOE G 151.1-1; DOE G 441.1-3; DOE G 441.1-8; DOE G 441.1-11; DOE-HDBK-1129-99; DOE M 231.1-2.


collective dose
The sum of individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

Related to absorbed dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.


committed dose equivalent
The dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake.

Symbol: HT,50.
Symbol: H50.
Acronym: CDE.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003.


committed dose
A synonym for dose commitment.

committed effective dose equivalent
Acronym: CEDE.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


D
A symbol for absorbed dose.

DAC
An acronym for derived air concentration.

DE
An acronym for dose equivalent.

derived air concentration
The concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of 2,000 hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of 1 ALI. Derived air concentration values are given in Table 1, Column 3, of appendix B to 10CFR part 20.1001-20.2401.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Acronym: DAC.
Related to annual limit on intake.
Related to light work.
Related to reference man.


dosage
A synonym for dose.

dosage rate
A synonym for dose rate.

dose
The amount of energy of a radiation absorbed in matter. The SI standard unit of dose is the gray.

Synonym: dosage.
Synonym: radiation dose.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to gray.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.


dose commitment
The dose equivalent received by a person to a specified organ during one calendar year due to uptake of a radionuclide.

Synonym: committed dose.

dose equivalent
A synonym for equivalent dose.

dose limits
The permissible upper bounds of radiation doses.

Reference: 10CFR20.1003.

dose meter
A synonym for dosimeter.

dose rate
The radiation dose per unit time.

Synonym: dosage rate.

dosimeter
A device that measures radiation dose.

Synonym: dose meter.

dosimetry
Of or pertaining to the process of measuring radiation dose.

EDE
An acronym for effective dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; 10CFR30.4; 10CFR70.4; 10CFR76.4; DOE-EH-413-9713; DOE Order 6430.1A.


effective dose
A measure of dose in which the type of radiation and the sensitivity of tissues and organs to that radiation is taken into account.

Related to effective dose equivalent.

effective dose equivalent
The sum of the dose equivalents to the organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factors (WT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated.

Symbol: HE.
Acronym: EDE.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.
Related to tissue weighting factor.


equivalent dose
The absorbed dose expressed in terms of the potential injury that it could cause. It is the product of the absorbed dose, the quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The SI standard uni for dose equivalent is the sievert.

Symbol: HT.
Synonym: ambient dose equivalent.
Synonym: directional dose equivalent.
Synonym: dose.
Synonym: dose equivalent.
Synonym: personal dose equivalent.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Related to quality factor.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


exposure
Of or pertaining to the process of being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Related to ionizing radiation.
Related to nonionizing radiation.


extremity
A hand, forearm, elbow, foot, ankle, lower leg, or knee. Extremities are often considered separately from the rest of the body because they are less susceptible to radiation.

Reference: 10CFR20.

film badge
A small badge containing photographic film that is worn by personnel to monitor radiation exposure. Gamma rays and beta particles that interact with the film cause a darkening whose intensity is a function of dose.

Related to dose.
Related to film ring.


film ring
Related to film badge.

H50
A symbol for committed dose equivalent.

HE
A symbol for effective dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; 10CFR30.4; 10CFR70.4; 10CFR76.4; USACHPPM TG 204.


health physics
The study of the effects of radiation on humans, the monitoring of radiation exposure and the reduction of health risks associated with radiation exposure.

Acronym: HP.

HT
A synonym for equivalent dose.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


HT,50
A symbol for committed dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; DOE G 440.1-3; USACHPPM TG 204.


integral absorbed dose
Symbol: Gy.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to total effective dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR10.; NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


LD
An acronym for lethal dose.

lethal dose
That dose of radiation which is likely to cause death.

Acronym: LD.
Related to dose.


nonstochastic effects
Health effects, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Synonym: deterministic effects.
Related to stochastic effects.


organ weighting factor
A synonym for tissue weighting factor.
Reference: ICRP Publication 60.


personal dose equivalent
A synonym for dose equivalent.

personnel monitoring
Measuring and tracking the radiation dose received by personnel.

planned special exposure
An infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual dose limits.

Reference: 10CFR20.

pocket dosimeter
A small ionization detector that is generally used to monitor whole body exposure.

QF
A symbol for quality factor.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; DOE G 421.1-1.


quality factor
A measure of the effectiveness of a radiation at producing injury in a biological system. It is dependent on the linear energy transfer of a radiation. The dose times the quality factor is known as an equivalent dose. The quality factor has been superceded by the radiation weighting factor in the definition of the equivalent dose, except for calculations.

   x-rays: QF = 1
   Gamma Rays: QF = 1
   Beta Particles: QF = 1
   Neutrons, Unknown Energy: QF = 10
   High-Energy Protons: QF = 10
   Alpha Particles: QF = 20
   Multiple-Charged Particle: QF = 20
   Heavy particles, unknown charge: QF = 20
   Fission Fragments: QF = 20
   Neutrons E less than 1x10-3 MeV: QF = 2
   Neutrons E = 0.001 MeV: QF = 2.5
   Neutrons E = 0.01 MeV: QF = 7.5
   Neutrons E = 0.1 MeV: QF = 11
   Neutrons E = 0.5 MeV: QF = 9
   Neutrons E = 1 MeV: QF = 8
   Neutrons E = 2.5 MeV: QF = 7
   Neutrons E = 5 MeV: QF = 6.5
   Neutrons E = 7 MeV: QF = 7.5
   Neutrons E = 10 MeV: QF = 8
   Neutrons E = 14 MeV: QF = 7
   Neutrons E = 20 MeV: QF = 5.5
   Neutrons E = 40 MeV: QF = 4
   Neutrons E = 60 MeV: QF = 3.5
   Neutrons E ≥100 MeV: QF = 3.5.


Symbol: QF.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to roentgen equivalent man.
Related to sievert.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


R
A symbol for roentgen.

rad
(1) A symbol for roentgen absorbed dose.
(2) A symbol for radiation absorbed dose.


radiation absorbed dose
A synonym for roentgen absorbed dose.

radiation area
An area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (0.05 mSv) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Related to high radiation area.
Related to very high radiation area.


radiation dose
A synonym for dose.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003.


radiation injury
Injury that is a result of exposure to large doses of radiation.

Related to radiation sickness.

radiation monitoring
The measurement of radiation levels, concentrations, surface area concentrations or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Acronym: RM.
Synonym: monitoring.
Synonym: radiation protection monitoring.


radiation protection monitoring
A synonym for monitoring.

radiation sickness
An illness resulting from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The earliest symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair, hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy.

Synonym: radiation illness.
Synonym: radiation syndrome.
Related to radiation injury.


radiation syndrome
A synonym for radiation sickness.

radiation weight factor
A synonym for radiation weighting factor.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; 10CFR30.4; 10CFR70.4; 10CFR76.4; USACHPPM TG 204.


radiation weighting factor
A normalization factor applied to the absorbed dose to produce the equivalent dose in a tissue or organ. The radiation weighting factor accounts for the effectiveness of radiation in inducing stochastic effects at low doses. Quality factor is an obsolete synonym for radiation weighting factor.

Synonym: radiation weight factor.
Related to quality factor.
Related to tissue weighting factor.


radiological sabotage
Any deliberate act directed against a plant or transport in which an activity licensed pursuant to the regulations in this chapter is conducted, or against a component of such a plant or transport which could directly or indirectly endanger the public health and safety by exposure to radiation.

Reference: 10CFR73.

RBE
An acronym for relative biological effectiveness.
Reference: DOE G 421.1-1.


relative biological effectiveness
The ratio of an absorbed dose of a radiation to that of a standard which will give comparable damage in a biological material.

Acronym: RBE.
Synonym: biologic effectiveness of radiation.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


rem
A symbolfor for roentgen equivalent man.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


roentgen
A unit of radiation exposure defined as the amount of x- or gamma-radiation that produces 1 esu of charge per cm3 of dry air at 0 °C and 760 torr.

Symbol: R.
Related to milliroentgen.


roentgen absorbed dose
A unit of radiation dose defined as 100 erg/g or 0.01 J/kg. The SI unit of dose is the gray (Gy), where 1 Gy = 100 rad.

Symbol: rad.
Synonym: radiation absorbed dose.
Related to gray.


roentgen equivalent mammal
A synonym for roentgen equivalent man.
Reference: DOD 3150.8-M.


roentgen equivalent man
A unit of absorbed dose defined as the number of rads times a quality factor. It represents a dose equivalent or a dose that is correlated with injury due to radiation exposure. The sievert is the SI unit of absorbed dose; 1 rem is equivalent to 0.01 sievert.

Symbol: rem.
Synonym: roentgen equivalent mammal.
Related to quality factor.
Related to roentgen absorbed dose.
Related to sievert.
Reference: NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


stochastic effects
Health effects that occur randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects.

Reference: 10CFR20.
Related to nonstochastic effects.


TEDE
An acronym for total effective dose equivalent.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; 10CFR50.2; 10CFR63.2; 10CFR835.2; DOE G 440.1-3; DOE G 441.1-3; DOE G 441.1-11; DOE M 231.1-2; USACHPPM TG 204.


thermoluminescence dosimeter
A device that uses electron or hole trapping in inorganic crystals for recording and integrating radiation dose. Ionization produced by radiation in the crystal traps electrons or holes in an excited state of the crystal. The dose is proportional to the number of traps created. Dose is determined by heating the crystal and measuring the light produced when the traps are depopulated. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a common example of a thermoluminescence dosimeter.

Acronym: TLD.
Synonym: thermoluminescenct dosimeter.


thermoluminescent dosimeter
A synonym for thermoluminescence dosimeter.

tissue equivalent material
Material whose composition approximates that of a given biological tissue.

Synonym: phantom material.
Related to phantom.


tissue weighting factor
A normalization factor applied to equivalent doses to account for different sensitivities of tissues and organs. Tissue weighting factors recommended in ICRP publication 60 are bladder: 0.05; bone surface: 0.01; breast: 0.05; colon: 0.12; esophagus: 0.05; gonads: 0.20; liver: 0.05; lung: 0.12; red bone marrow: 0.12; skin: 0.01; stomach: 0.12; thyroid: 0.05; and remainder: 0.05.

Symbol: wT.
Synonym: organ weighting factor.
Related to radiation weighting factor.
Reference: ICRP Publication 60.


total effective dose equivalent
The sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures).

Acronym: TEDE.
Related to absorbed dose.
Related to collective dose.
Related to committed dose equivalent.
Related to committed effective dose equivalent.
Related to dose.
Related to dose equivalent.
Related to effective dose equivalent.
Related to integral absorbed dose.
Reference: 10CFR20.1003; NUREG-0544, Rev. 4.


weighting factor
A measure of the effectiveness of a radiation at producing injury in a biological system. It is dependent on the linear energy transfer of a radiation. The dose times the quality factor is known as a dose equivalent. Gonads: wT = 0.25; Breast: wT = 0.15; Red Bone Marrow: wT = 0.12; Lung: wT = 0.12; Thyroid: wT = 0.03; Bone Surface: wT = 0.03; Remainder: wT = 0.30; Whole Body: wT = 1.00.

References: 10CFR20, 10CFR70.
Symbol: wT.
Related to effective dose equivalent.


whole body counter
A radiation detection device consisting of an array of large scintillation detectors. The detector array is designed to monitor for low-level gamma-ray activity from radioactive nuclides absorbed in the body.

Synonym: whole body monitor.

whole body monitor
A synonym for whole body counter.

WT
A symbol for tissue weighting factor.






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